Immunochemiluminescent analysis as a diagnostic method
Currently, there are many models of automatic analyzers that differ in the method used to detect the desired substance.
The main analysis methods used are:
– radioimmunological (RIA);
– enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA);
Let us consider in more detail immunochemiluminescent analysis.
Immunochemiluminescent analysis is based on the enzyme immunoassay. The principle of this method was developed in 1971, as a substitute for radioimmunoassay, which posed a risk to the health of laboratory staff who conducted the research. Further development of analysis systems using ELISA, including their widespread automation, led to the appearance of varieties of ELISA, namely immunochemiluminescent analysis.
Immunochemiluminescent analysis (IHLA) is a laboratory analysis that combines chemiluminescence (electromagnetic radiation caused by a chemical reaction to form light) with the formation of the antigen-antibody immune complex. As in the case of other types of immunoassay (RIA, ELISA), chemical components are used in IHLA, which can generate light radiation as a result of a chemical reaction, for example, labeled antibodies. Thus, the method is highly sensitive and can detect a wide range of substances of a protein nature.
There are two types of IHLA qualitative and quantitative. In the first case, the presence or absence of the desired component in the analyzed material is determined. In the second case, the determined concentration of the determined component in the material is determined. The quantitative type of IHLA is the most commonly used.
In laboratory diagnostics, using IHLA, the main types of body fluids studied are whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, smears from mucous membranes. The type of fluid used in the study is determined by the analyzer model used and compatible reagent kits.
The main advantages of the method:
– Safety for research staff;
– High sensitivity;
– High specificity;
– Wide range of applications;
– The relative simplicity of the used equipment;
– Wide linear range.
The main disadvantages of the method:
– The high cost of reagents and equipment;
– The interpretation of results should be carried out by a specialist;
– Low susceptibility to infectious diseases (most used reagents can only indirectly indicate the presence of infection)
– The treating staff needs to know which analyte should be found when assigning the study.
In recent years, IHLA has attracted increasing attention in various fields, including biology, clinical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, food safety and pharmaceutical analysis.
1 – GOST R 55991.2-2014 p 5.1